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• Note any other tracks which diverge or converge
with the line.
• Look for underlying single-joint muscles that may
affect the working of the line.
Posterior Spiral Line
4th hamstring
What the Anatomy Trains is not
Middle part of
adductor magnus
A comprehensive theory of
manipulative therapy
this topic and the Anatomy Trains theory deals only
with the 'outer bag' of parietal myofascia as described
in Chapter 1. The whole area of joint manipulation is left
to the osteopathic and chiropractic texts, and is beyond
the scope of the myofascial meridians concept. Certainly,
we have found that balancing the lines eases joint strain
and thus perhaps extends joint life. Attention to the
'inner bag' of peri-articular tissues, however, as well as
dorsal and ventral cavity connective tissue complexes
(cranial and visceral manipulation), is essential, advis-
able, and simply not covered by this topic.
Biceps femoris
(long head)
Linea aspera
Biceps femoris
(short head)
Peroneus longus
A comprehensive theory of muscle action
Firstly, Anatomy Trains theory is not designed to replace
other findings of muscle function, but to add to them.
The infraspinatus is still seen to be active in laterally
rotating the humerus and in preventing excessive medial
rotation, and in stabilizing the shoulder joint. We are
simply adding the idea that it also operates as part of the
Deep Back Arm Line, a functionally connected meridian
of myofascia that runs from the little finger to the tho-
racic and cervical spine.
Secondly, while this topic includes most of the body's
named muscles within the lines, certain muscles are not
easily placed within this metaphor. The deep lateral
rotators of the hip, for example, could be construed fas-
cially to be part of the Deep Front Line or perhaps a
putative Deep Back Line. They do not really lend them-
selves, however, to being part of any long line of fascial
transmission. These muscles are most easily seen as
combining with others around the hip to present a series
of three interlinked fans. 1
Those muscles not named as part of the Anatomy
Trains map are obviously still active in a coordinated
fashion with others in the body, but may not be operat-
ing along these articulated chains of myofascia.
Fig. 2.13 The long head of the biceps femoris is a two-joint
'express', part of the Spiral Line (left). Beneath it lie the one-joint
'locals' of the short head of the biceps connecting across the linea
aspera to the middle of the adductor magnus muscle (right). The
two locals closely mirror individually the collective action of the
Back Line
Spinal cord
Front Line
Blood vessels
Front Line
Fig. 2.14 The five lines that run more or less straight longitudinally
(the four cardinal, counting the left and right Lateral Lines as two,
and the Deep Front Line) identified on a cross-section of the basic
vertebrate body plan (as if you are looking at a section cut from a
fish). Note the relationship among the lines themselves, as well as
to major organic structures.
A comprehensive theory of movement
While some movement definitely takes place along the
meridian lines, anything more complex than the sim-
plest reflex or gesture defies description in terms of the
action of a single line. The actions involved in fixation,
stabilization, and stretch are more amenable to Anatomy
Trains analysis and readily conform to the meridians.
Thus the system lends itself to postural analysis, which
depends primarily upon fixation.
Each meridian describes one very precise line of pull
through the body, and most complex movements, of
2.14), readers can find and construct their own by fol-
lowing these rules:
• Follow the grain of the connective tissue,
maintaining a fairly steady direction without
jumping joints or levels or crossing through
intervening planes of fascia.
• Note the stations where these myofascial tracks tie
down to the underlying tissues.
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