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Fig. 2.9 The deeper fibers of a station 'communicate' less along
the tracks, while the superficial fibers - the ones we can more
easily reach manually - communicate more.
Fig. 2.8 A traditional view of the sacrotuberous ligament (A)
shows it linking the ischial tuberosity to the sacrum. A more
inclusive view (B) shows the hamstring tendons - especially that of
the biceps femoris - being continuous with the surface of the
sacrotuberous ligament and then on up into the sacral fascia.
external oblique are removed from their bony attach-
ments, there remains a strong and substantial sheet of
biological fabric connecting all three. In fact, one can
argue that separating them into separate muscles is a
convenient fiction.
Thus, for example, the hamstrings clearly attach on
the posterior side of the ischial tuberosities. Just as
clearly, some fibers of the hamstring myofascia continue
on over and into the sacrotuberous ligament and up
onto the sacrum (Fig. 2.8). These ongoing connections
have been de-emphasized in contemporary texts that
tend to treat muscles or fascial structures singularly in
terms of their actions from origin to insertion, and con-
temporary musculoskeletal illustrations tend to rein-
force this impression.
Most stations have more communication with the
next myofascial linkage in the superficial rather than the
deeper fibers, and the sacrotuberous ligament is a con-
venient example. The deeper layers clearly join bone to
bone and have very limited movement or communica-
tion beyond that connection. The more superficial we
go, the more communication through to the other myo-
fascial 'tracks' there is (Fig. 2.9). Too much communi-
cation in the deeper layers approximates the term
'lax ligaments'; too little approximates 'stiffness' or
Fig. 2.10 The layers of abdominal fasciae converge and diverge in
a complex functional pattern. (Reproduced with kind permission
from Grundy 1982.)
cesses, divide into the three differently grained layers of
the obliques and transversus muscles at the lateral
raphe, only to split uniquely around the rectus abdomi-
nis, join into one at the linea alba, and repeat the whole
process in reverse on the opposite side (Fig. 2.10). As
another example, many laminae of fascia intermingle in
the thoracolumbar and sacral area, where they blend
into stronger sheets, often inseparable in dissection.
Switches present the body - and sometimes the
therapist - with choices. The rhomboids span from the
spinous processes to the medial scapular border. At
the scapula, there is a clear fascial connection to both the
serratus anterior (especially from the fascia on the pro-
found side of the rhomboids), which carries on around
3. Tracks join and diverge
in switches' and the
occasional 'roundhouse'
Fascial planes frequently interweave, joining with each
other and splitting from each other, which we will call
'switches' (UK: points) in keeping with our train meta-
phor. The laminae of the abdominal muscles, for
example, arise together from the lumbar transverse pro-
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