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and for a Primal Pictures DVD-ROM product (Fig. In.
19). Stills from these sources have been used here when
they shed additional light. As well, we have used still
photos of action and standing posture with the lines
superimposed to give some sense of the lines in vivo
(Figs In. 20 and In. 21).
Although I have not seen the myofascial continuities
completely described elsewhere, I was both chagrined
(to find out that my ideas were not totally original) and
relieved (to realize that I was not totally off-track) to dis-
cover, after I had published an early version of these
ideas, 33,3 4 that similar work had been done by some
German anatomists, such as Hoepke, in the 1930s
(Fig. In. 22). 3 5 There are also similarities with the chaines
musculaires of Francoise Meziere 36,3 7 (developed by
Leopold Busquet), to which I was introduced prior to
completing this topic. These chaines musculaires are based
on functional connections - passing, for instance, from
the quadriceps through the knee to the gastrocnemii and
soleus - whereas the Anatomy Trains are based on direct
fascial connections (Fig. In. 23). The more recent diagrams
application, endless hours of teaching, and poring
through old books have refined the original concept to
its current state.
Over this decade, we have looked for effective ways
to depict these continuities that would make them easier
to understand and see. For instance, the connection
between the biceps femoris and the sacrotuberous liga-
ment is well documented, 3 3 while the fascial interlock-
ing between the hamstrings and gastrocnemii at the
lower end of Figure In. 13 is less often shown. These form
part of a head-to-toe continuity termed the Superficial
Back Line, which has been dissected out intact in both
preserved (see Figs In. 3 and In. 10) and fresh-tissue
cadavers (Fig. In. 14).
The simplest way of depicting these connections is as
a geometric line of pull passing from one 'station'
(muscle attachment) to the next. This one-dimensional
view is included with each chapter (Fig. In. 15). Another
way to consider these lines is as part of a plane of fascia,
especially the superficial layers and the fascial 'unitard'
of the profundis layer, so this two-dimensional 'area of
influence' is also included for some lines (Fig. In. 16).
Principally, these lines are collections of muscles and
their accompanying fascia, a three-dimensional volume
- and this volumetric view is featured in three views at
the beginning of each chapter (Fig. In. 17).
Additional views of the Anatomy Trains in motion
have been developed for our video series (Fig. In. 18),
Fig. In. 13 The hamstrings have a clear fibrous fascial continuity
with the sacrotuberous ligament fibers. There is also a fascial
continuity between the distal hamstring tendons and the heads of
the gastrocnemii, but this connection is often cut and seldom
depicted. (Photo courtesy of the author; dissection by Laboratories
of Anatomical Enlightenment.)
Fig. In. 14 A similar Superficial Back Line dissected intact from a
fresh-tissue cadaver. (Photo courtesy of the author; dissection by
Laboratories of Anatomical Enlightenment.) (DVD: A video of this
specimen is on the DVD accompanying this topic)
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