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angular field of the pectoralis or the latissimus, linking and
anchoring to various tracks and stations from second to
second. In this example, the stability-mobility equation is
reversed, with the shoulder stabilizing the body on the pole,
and the hips and legs imparting momentum over the bar. If we
add the deltoid-trapezius connection from the Superficial
Back Arm Line, we see an entire circle of stabilization around
the shoulder joint, any piece or all of which may be called upon
during the vault (see Fig. 7.13, p. 156).
The lower end of these Functional Lines works in the same
way. In a hurdler, the forces approaching the roundhouse of
the pubic bone from above sweep around the fan of abdomi-
nal muscle, and from below along the fan of adductors. 1
Depending on his relation to the hurdles, and how much
he abducts his leg to go over them, the line of pull from pubis
to leg might travel on the pectineus, or any of the adductors,
more than likely sweeping through all or most of them during
each leap. In this case, the anteriority of the opposite shoulder
works through this line to give added impetus to the leading
leg (Fig. 8.8).
From this, we hope the reader grasps the idea that while
the Functional Lines present the idealized line, the actuality of
moment-to-moment movement flickers across the body on a
multiplicity of connections combining the Functional, Spiral,
and Lateral Lines.
spine of the hip. Alternatively, Figure 8.7. shows another route
crossing over from the Spiral Line to the FFL. A high backhand
to return a lob might require the entire latissimus. The rest of
the volley might go diagonally down and across as we have
detailed with the BFL, or straight down the Superficial Front
Line for a point-winning slam right at the net.
For another example, if we imagine a vaulter levering
off the pole, we can see the force flicker across the entire tri-
Fig. 8.6 A
backhand shot
could similarly join
the Superficial Back
Arm Line to its
opposite partner as
well as down the
torso to the pelvis
and beyond.
Discussion 2
The Ipsilateral Functional Line
The following line is too small to merit its own chapter, but too
functional to leave out entirely, so it is bundled here as a
branch of the Functional Line.
Fig. 8.7 As an example of the sweep of forces,
consider the sheet of the external oblique (A),
whose upper fibers all start from the ribs, but
with various lower attachments. The lateral
fibers go to the ipsilateral hip bone (part of the
Lateral Line), the middle fibers go to the pubic
bone (and on into the adductors on the
opposite side), essentially a branch of the
Functional Line shown in (B), while the upper
fibers cross via the contralateral internal oblique
to attach to the opposite hip bone (Spiral Line).
Thus the torso portion of the Lateral Line, the
Spiral Line, and the Functional Lines could be
grouped as the 'helical' lines, as opposed to the
Superficial Front and Back Lines, and the
Lateral Line taken as a whole, which constitute
the 'cardinal' lines.
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