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Fig. 3.35 The hyperextended knees can be viewed, in Anatomy
Trains terms, as a secondary curve problem. (A) Before treatment,
this secondary curve has been reversed to a primary curve,
exporting extra strain to the other secondary curves - in this case
the lumbar and cervical areas. (B) After Structural Integration
processing, the knee curve has normalized, and so have the rest
of the secondary curves. (Reproduced with kind permission from
Toporek 1981 6 .)
Fig. 3.34 The alternation of primary and secondary curves in the
spine can be seen as extending across the whole back of the
body. The SBL extends behind all these curves, and the tone of
its tissues is instrumental in maintaining an easy balance among
course the bow is not static, given the many possible motions
of the foot in daily and sporting life. In motion, all of these
successively deeper layers of myofascia and ligament are
active in sustaining the arches (Fig. 3.36 and see Fig. 3.8).
These constitute layers that are deeper than the SBL, but
when we come to their proximal or distal ends, we cannot
point to a fascial continuity with any other sections of the
body, beyond the 'everything-is-connected-to-everything-
else-in-the-fascial-net' generalization.
In the lower leg, there is the deeper set of locals (soleus
and popliteus) that underlie the gastrocnemii, but they are still
part of the SBL, being attached simply to the underside of the
Achilles fascia (and we will include little plantaris in this group
There is a group of muscles deep to the soleus, between
it and the back surface of the interosseous membrane - the
deep posterior compartment - consisting of the long toe
flexors and the tibialis posterior (Fig. 3.37). These muscles,
however, will be very clearly shown to be part of the Deep
Front Line (see Ch. 9), despite their posterior position in this
segment of the body, and thus do not qualify as a Deep Back
Line. The peroneal muscles, in the lateral compartment, will
be clearly shown to be part of the Lateral Line (see Ch. 5).
In the thigh, the hamstrings overlie the short head of the
biceps and the adductor magnus, which constitute a local
under the express of the long head of the biceps (see the
section on the 4th hamstring in Ch. 6). So all of these muscles,
right down to the bone, can be thought of as part of the
There is another story in the back of the hip. Although they
do not directly underlie the structures of the SBL, the deep
lateral rotators nevertheless act like a Deep Back Line in this
overall systemic view of the interaction along an entire myo-
fascial meridian, or, as we proceed, among the meridians,
instead of focusing solely on single muscles or individual
fascial structures as culprits.
Discussion 2
Is there a Deep Back Line?
According to standard anatomical nomenclature, if there is a
Superficial Back Line, there should be a Deep Back Line.
Besides, if there is clearly a Deep Front Line as well as a
Superficial Front Line, does symmetry not require that there
be a Deep Back Line? In fact, whether symmetry requires it
or not, anatomically, there is no Deep Back Line. Though there
are isolated areas along the SBL where there are deeper layers
of myofascia, there is no consistent and connected layer
deeper than the one already discussed.
Taking a brief look at these areas is instructive. In the
plantar surface of the foot, for instance, many layers lie supe-
rior (profound) to the plantar fascia. These layers contain the
short flexors and the ab- and adductors of the toes and their
associated fascia, as well as the long plantar and spring liga-
ments that underlie the tarsal arches. The plantar fascia was
described above as the bowstring of the arches' bow, but of
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