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commonly developed, studied, and used instrument for stem cell therapy in
musculoskeletal medicine. MSCs may be applied in isolation, as injectables
on scaffolds, or in combination with reconstructive surgeries. The feasibility
and reliability of MSC treatments are an area of intensive in vitro research.
There is potential to create functional load-bearing repairs that might bring
substantial progress to surgical reconstruction after bone, cartilage, ten-
don, and ligament injury. The use of MSCs may facilitate faster healing and,
thus bring benefit by improving postsurgical recovery and rehabilitation.
Encouraging recent positive reports of clinical case series promise a path-
way for the use of stem cells in vivo . However, the effectiveness of cellular
therapies in randomized clinical trials will need to be assessed as the next
step. Short- and long-term safety should also be addressed.
Abdallah, B.M., M. Haack-Sorensen, J.S. Burns, B. Elsnab, F. Jakob, P. Hokland, and
M. Kassem. 2005. Maintenance of differentiation potential of human bone
marrow mesenchymal stem cells immortalized by human telomerase reverse
transcriptase gene despite [corrected] extensive proliferation. Biochemical and
Biophysical Research Communications 326, no. 3: 527-38.
Abdallah, B.M. and M. Kassem. 2008. Human mesenchymal stem cells: from basic
biology to clinical applications. Gene Therapy 15, no. 2: 109-16.
Andres, B.M. and G.A. Murrell. 2008. Treatment of tendinopathy: what works, what
does not, and what is on the horizon. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
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Arbab, A.S., L.A. Bashaw, B.R. Miller, E.K. Jordan, J.W. Bulte, and J.A. Frank. 2003.
Intracytoplasmic tagging of cells with ferumoxides and transfection agent for
cellular magnetic resonance imaging after cell transplantation: methods and
techniques. Transplantation 76, no. 7: 1123-30.
Arinzeh, T.L., S.J. Peter, M.P. Archambault, C. Van Den Bos, S. Gordon, K. Kraus,
A. Smith, and S. Kadiyala. 2003. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells regenerate
bone in a critical-sized canine segmental defect. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.
American Volume 85-A, no. 10: 1927-35.
Bhagavati, S. 2008. Stem cell based therapy for skeletal muscle diseases. Current Stem
Cell Research and Therapy 3, no. 3: 219-28.
Bruder, S.P., K.H. Kraus, V.M. Goldberg, and S. Kadiyala. 1998. The effect of implants
loaded with autologous mesenchymal stem cells on the healing of canine seg-
mental bone defects. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume 80, no. 7:
Butler, D.L., N. Juncosa-Melvin, G.P. Boivin, M.T. Galloway, J.T. Shearn, C. Gooch,
and H. Awad. 2008. Functional tissue engineering for tendon repair: a multidis-
ciplinary strategy using mesenchymal stem cells, bioscaffolds, and mechanical
stimulation. Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic
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