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commonly developed, studied, and used instrument for stem cell therapy in
musculoskeletal medicine. MSCs may be applied in isolation, as injectables
on scaffolds, or in combination with reconstructive surgeries. The feasibility
and reliability of MSC treatments are an area of intensive in vitro research.
There is potential to create functional load-bearing repairs that might bring
substantial progress to surgical reconstruction after bone, cartilage, ten-
don, and ligament injury. The use of MSCs may facilitate faster healing and,
thus bring benefit by improving postsurgical recovery and rehabilitation.
Encouraging recent positive reports of clinical case series promise a path-
way for the use of stem cells in vivo . However, the effectiveness of cellular
therapies in randomized clinical trials will need to be assessed as the next
step. Short- and long-term safety should also be addressed.
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