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In-Depth Information
Rearing
Testing
A
Maternal assembly
call (~4 notes per sec)
Maternal assembly call
(~4 notes per sec)
quack
quack
quack
quack
quack
quack
quack
quack
B
Maternal assembly
call (~4 notes per sec)
quack
quack
quack
quack
Maternal assembly call
(~4 notes per sec)
quack
quack
quack
quack
Devocalized
C
Contentment call
(~4 notes per sec)
Maternal assembly
call (~4 notes per sec)
peep
peep
peep
peep
quack
quack
quack
quack
D
peep
Manipulated call
(~2 notes per sec)
peep
peep
peep
peep
peep
peep
peep
50%
50%
Devocalized
Recorded call
(~4 notes per sec)
Recorded call
(~2 notes per sec)
FIGURE 10.23 Maternal imprinting in ducklings. A. When ducklings are exposed to the maternal vocal-
ization (~4 notes/s), they will subsequently approach an assembly call (~4 notes/s). B. Exposure to the assem-
bly call alone is sufficient to promote auditory imprinting. C. Exposure to the duckling's own contentment
call, which is also ~4 notes/s, is sufficient to promote auditory imprinting. D. When a duckling is exposed
to an unnatural call (2 notes/s) during development, it is not able to recognize and respond to the assembly
call when tested subsequently. (Adapted from Gottlieb, 1980)
The attachment of infant to mother requires an
endogenous reward mechanism. Mice lacking the
mu-opioid receptor (which mediates reward and anal-
gesia) do not vocalize when they are removed from
their mother, as wild-type animals do (Moles et al.,
2004). Nor do they prefer their own bedding to that
from another female. These results suggest that mater-
nal attachment requires that both infant learning and
an endogenous reward system validate maternal audi-
tory, olfactory, and visual cues.
such as a poisonous plant or a predator. Animals are
born with the innate ability to avoid certain things. For
example, several species of birds will run from a black
hawk-shaped silhouette that is moved over their heads.
This occurs even when the birds are reared in isolation
with no chance to learn that the “hawk” image repre-
sents danger (Tinbergen, 1948). Many other dangers are
not recognized at first, and animals must learn to avoid
these situations through some sort of experience. A
well-studied form of learning, called fear conditioning , is
probably responsible for much of our skill at avoiding
danger. During fear conditioning, an animal learns to
associate an unconditioned stimulus and response (e.g.,
a snake bite and the pain or fear it produces) with a
neutral stimulus (e.g., the image of a snake). Obviously,
an image of a snake can do no harm, but the animal has
learned that if he sees a snake, he may be bitten. Thus,
FEAR AND LOATHING
Beyond the procurement of food and water, most
animals need behavioral mechanisms to avoid danger,
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