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In-Depth Information
CP
CP
CP
to other
cortical
areas
IZ
IZ
IZ
to
subcortical
targets
VZ
VZ
VZ
FIGURE 4.18 This figure picks up where Figure 3.15 leaves off, after the birth and migration of the Cajal-
Retzius cells and the Subplate cells. A. The next neurons to be generated in the cortex are the pyramidal
neurons of the deep layers, V and VI, whose axons project to subcortical targets. B. The next neurons to be
born are the local interneurons in Layer IV of the cortex. C. Finally, the pyramidal cells of the upper layers,
II and III, are generated. They send axons to other cortical areas.
THE INTERPLAY OF INTRINSIC
AND EXTRINSIC INFLUENCES
IN HISTOGENESIS
pattern of cellular birth. To understand cell determi-
nation in this system, it is necessary to know the basic
cell types. In addition to photoreceptors, which
include rods and cones, the vertebrate retina contains
interneurons, including horizontal cells, bipolar cells,
amacrine cells, and projection neurons called retinal
ganglion cells (RGCs). The RGCs are the output
The vertebrate retina, like the mammalian cortex, is
organized into layers, and there is a clear histogenetic
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