Healthcare and Medicine Reference
interpretation, and expert insight that provides a framework for deci-
sion making and evaluating and incorporating new experiences and
information. It may be explicit or tacit, and individual or collective.
In organizations, it often becomes embedded not only in documents
or repositories, but also in organizational routines, processes, prac-
tices, and norms. More generally, it is the range of one's information
or understanding of facts or ideas acquired by study, investigation,
observation, or experience.
Knowledge translation: A dynamic and iterative process that includes
synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically sound application
of knowledge to improve the health of a defined community, pro-
vide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the
health-care system. Knowledge translation implies a multidirectional,
multilateral, and multiparty continuous communication between
researchers, practicing physicians, other health professionals, patients,
community, policy makers, pharmaceutical and other technology
producers, and stakeholders regarding the health of individuals and
Lapse (in lathology): Failures of memory that do not necessarily manifest
themselves in actual behavior and may only be apparent to the per-
son who experiences them.
Lapse (in medicine): A memory-based error; a memory-generated failure
(e.g., forgetting a patient's allergy to an antibiotic).
Lathology: The study and management of error and harm occurring in
clinical and community medicine and care (error and harm caused by
medical or any other health professional and working environment
in the context of this topic). “Lathology” is derived from the Greek
words lathos , which means error and logos , which means study.
Learning curve: The description of the development and acquisition of a
new surgical or medical skill in the search for moments, levels, or
stages of reaching a potential for lower-than-expected success rates or
higher-than-expected error, complication, and/or harm rates. Learning
curve study and analysis is used increasingly in the evaluation of
health professional training progress.
Likelihood: A state of being likely or probable, or the probability that an
event that has already occurred would yield a specific outcome. It dif-
fers from probability, which refers to the occurrence of future events.
Likelihood ratio (in the domain of diagnosis): The probability that a
given test result would occur in a person with the target disorder