Healthcare and Medicine Reference
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systematizes (organizes) decision making, clarifies decision making,
and leads to the “correctness” of decisions.
Clinical epidemiology: The science and method of studying and making
optimal decisions in clinical medicine, while taking into account the
epidemiological characteristics of the patient and the patient's outer clin-
ical environment, the pathology concerned, and the factors and maneu-
vers to which the patient is exposed in his or her clinical environment,
especially medical actions. The application of epidemiological knowl-
edge, reasoning, and methods to study clinical issues and improve
medical and other decisions when dealing with individual patients and
groups of patients and to improve overall clinical care (N.B. and its out-
comes). Also, using the experience acquired in groups in reasoning and
decision making in the care of individuals.
Clinical judgment: The capacity to make and choose data and informa-
tion to produce useful (true or false) claims in clinical practice and
research. It also means critical thinking in the practice of medicine
based on the “patient/evidence/setting” it. Together with elements
of knowledge and experience, it relies on the process of integrating
meanings and values of clinical and paraclinical observation and data
into the making of conclusions and decisions derived from such an
Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs): A set of systematically developed
evidence and other elements-based statements to assist practitioners'
and patients' decisions about the best possible health care for specific
clinical and community medicine circumstances. As opposed to clini-
cal protocols, clinical practice guidelines are not prescriptive; they are
only proposals regarding what to do.
Clinical protocols: Structured and organized step-by-step activities pre-
scribed to be followed in a given health structure, setting, and situ-
ation. As opposed to clinical practice guidelines, critical protocols
are prescriptive; they must be followed in the framework of a given
clinical activity.
Clinical reasoning: A context-dependent way of thinking and decision
making in professional practice to guide practice actions. It involves
the construction of narratives to make sense of multiple factors and
interests pertaining to the current reasoning task. It occurs within a
set of problem spaces informed by the practitioner's unique frames
of reference, workplace context, and practice models, as well as by
the patient or client contexts. It utilizes core dimensions of practice
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