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from premises to conclusions of an argument) as opposed to conscious
manipulations of an argumentation's components and path, such as non-
argumentative or extralogical elements, language and not-explicated or
implicit objectives of lateral thinking in the mind of the proponent of
Whether “true” fallacies or rhetorical ploys are behind our interactions,
they both fall under the common notion of communication errors . Here is
a partial list of some illustrative examples. (Their full array can be found in
the literature.)
In our practice, we encounter two kinds of patients:
1. Some expect that the physician will solve their problem for them and
thus place themselves more or less blindly in the physician's profes-
sional hands, without questioning the physician's rationale. (“I am pay-
ing you to solve my problem. So, do it!”)
2. Others with curious minds exchange views and ideas in an argument
with their physician, trying in a participatory way to contribute to the
solution of their health problem. These patients, argument-able laymen
can, because of their intellectual abilities, experience, and judgment
broader than the medical field, assist the physician by asking proper
questions and providing other information to direct even better clinical
decisions in their case.
Beyond the patient world and clinical environment, almost every-
one in the community is concerned about health issues since they are
not automatically well understood and correct solutions are not always
applied to resolve them: Governments and civic administrations, other
planners and providers of material (funding) and human resources (agen-
cies, schools, higher academic institutions), lawyers and courts of law,
security forces (police and army), electronic, print, radio, and television
media, clergy and institutions of faith. The domains of politics, media,
and entertainment are an even more fertile field for fallacies and remain
wide open to rhetorical ploys of all kind. Especially, in these areas,
reaching the absolute truth about a health problem is not necessarily an
ideal and ultimate goal, objective, or claim to be reached by meaningful
argumentation. In the struggle for the attention of recipients of messages
and claims, their minds must be won for the proponent's causes. Very
often, anything goes.
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