Healthcare and Medicine Reference
clinical medicine, for any noxious or beneficial factor and their outcomes,
disease signs or symptoms, or the disease itself, its diagnosis, or remedial
clinical actions (treatments) and their outcomes.
Last but not least, our reasoning and decision making must remain
fallacy-free, which is also a learned experience.
Let us see now, in the chapter that follows, how our ways of reasoning
and decision making apply to various steps and stages of clinical practice
and care such as assessing risk in patients (communities), making diagnosis,
choosing and administering treatment, assessing patient outcomes (progno-
sis), and establishing follow-up and long-term care for individuals under our
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