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Table 2.5 Uses of Frequencies, Rates, Ratios or Proportions at Various Levels of
Prevention and Choices in Health Program Considerations ( Continued )
× Operational
Considerations
of Health
Programs
(target
population)
× Controllability
(in proportional
terms)
× Clinical
Importance
Priority =
Occurrence
Secondary
(control of
disease
prevalence
by controlling
the duration
of cases)
Prevalence
Disease
severity
(case
fatality rate,
severity
score, etc.)
Etiological
(attributable)
fraction of
prognosis
(survival or
duration of
disease) a
Group of
patients
reached by the
health care
program
Tertiary and
quarternary
(control of
disease
spectrum
and/or
gradient
without
affecting its
duration)
Clinical
events
Disease
severity
(case
fatality rate,
severity
score, etc.)
Etiological
(attributable)
fraction of
prognosis
(outcomes'
occurrence timing
and duration in
terms of disease
spectrum and/or
gradient) b
Group of
patients
reached by the
health care
program
Source: Modified, expanded, and redrawn from Jenicek, M., Epidemiology . The Logic
of Modern Medicine , EPIMED International, Montréal, 1995; Jenicek, M.,
Foundations of Evidence-Based Medicine , The Parthenon Publishing Group/
CRC Press, Boca Raton/London/New York/Washington, 2003.
All components may be considered in terms of absolute frequencies, rates,
or proportional rates, depending on the view of importance.
For more about levels of prevention, see Chapter 3, Section 3.3.1.
a From observational analytical studies, more desirable from clinical and community trials.
b Mainly from clinical trials.
and fractions, etiological and prognostic fractions, and other considerations
are combined in our choice of possible most successful interventions.
N.B. For detailed definitions of levels of prevention, see Section 3.3.1 of
this topic.
All frequencies and fractions used have a specific meaning from the point
of view of causality (importance of the event and its controllability and
 
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