Healthcare and Medicine Reference
In-Depth Information
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Group of interest
(disease suerers as a whole,
“serious” cases,
patients at a given hospital,
patients at “your” clinic, etc.)
Patients selected
for a
clinical trial
Assessment of patients'
initial state (at entry)
eligibility
Distribution of
patients in
treatment groups
(initial state)
Application
of treatments
(maneuvers)
Evaluation of impact
(outcome, subsequent state)
Data
analysis
Before
After
Initial state
of individuals
representing a
group of
particular interest
(“experimental”
group)
Principal
maneuver
(exposure to a
noxious or
benecial
agent, drug,
surgery, etc.)
Subsequent state
of the group of
particular
(“principal”)
interest
General population
from which
patients originate
All patients
of interest
Control maneuver
(no exposure to a
noxious or
benecial agent,
placebo, sham
operation or
no surgery, etc.)
Subsequent state
of a control
group
Initial state
of individuals
representing a
control group
(controls)
Generalization
and application
to other groups
and individuals
Generalization to a particular
group of interest
(target patient population)
Similar patients
Before
After
My particular
patient
Extrapolation of ˆndings
to the sampled group
under study
Interpretation of ˆndings
to the sampled group
under study
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Figure 2.13 A basic model of a cause-effect analytical study in medicine. (Redrawn with modiications from Jenicek, M.,
Epidemiology. The Logic of Modern Medicine , EPIMED International, Montréal, 1995; Jenicek, M., Foundations of Evidence-
Based Medicine , The Parthenon Publishing Group/CRC Press, Boca Raton/London/New York/Washington, 2003; Jenicek, M.,
Medical Error and Harm. Understanding, Prevention, and Control , CRC Press/Taylor & Francis/Productivity Press, Boca Raton/
London/New York, 2011.)
 
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