Healthcare and Medicine Reference
Correct or incorrect argumentation, reasoning, critical thinking, and deci-
sion making underlie such processes.
We do not always realize that modern argumentation and argument are
behind most of our evidence and critical thinking-based, clinical epidemiol-
ogy grounded reasoning and decision making. Flawed argumentation and
reasoning are sites and generators of error and harm. Correct argumentation
and human error and harm analysis from a logical perspective contribute to
the quality of medical care and patient safety.
A step-by-step evaluation of both argumentation and cognition processes must
contribute to improvements in the medical error domain. And they do. These
processes are used at each of the following steps in medical care: A step-by-step
evaluation of both argumentation and cognition processes must contribute to
improvements in the medical error domain. And they do.
These processes are used at each of the following steps in medical care:
• Evidence build-up , structured or unstructured (history, literature, physical and
paraclinical examination, past experience)
• Reasoning about the case, problem or situation, structured acquisition of new
knowledge (differential diagnosis, final diagnosis, comorbidity assessment)
• Decision making (medical, surgical, psychiatric, and other orders and plans for
• Sensorimotor execution of medical acts (operation, invasive diagnostic
procedures, physiotherapy, parenteral applications of drugs, new technologies
devises implantation, etc.)
• Getting results (positive and adverse)
• Evaluation (of all the preceding steps, one-by-one and the entire process;
successes, errors, failures)
• Prognosis and further risk assessment (morbidity, comorbidity, further outcomes)
• Follow-up, surveillance, forecasting (risk factors and markers, prognostic factors
and markers, possible outcomes, errors and failures).