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Table 2.2 Connectors and Indicators of Argument Building Blocks behind
Natural Language ( Continued )
Building Block to Which You Refer
Argument Building Block Indicator
5. … once pros and cons are balanced …
Adducts, qualifier modulators; they
are determinants of your qualified
claim. You express here the degree of
certainty (and uncertainty) in your
claim (findings of the study).
6. … unless this occurs …
“Rebuttals”: These are your
reservations and the exclusionary
conditions under which the
conclusions of your study do not
apply. For example, therapeutic
contraindications may be set into this
7. … speaking in favor of …
You may emphasize again briefly
“Support” for your findings like
selected elements from grounds,
and so on.
8. … speaking against …
You balance your pros and cons in
terms of “Attenuators” :  Elements from
grounds and backing, in light of the
warrant, that weaken the certainty
about the claim.
9. … to this degree, therefore …
In terms of your “Qualifier,” your
certainty about your claim, your
10. … we stand for this.
These are the conclusions of your
study and article, your “Claim”:
Proposition reached, impression of
cause-effect link, effectiveness of
intervention, entity definition, disease
magnitude, nature of the problem,
decision, recommended action.
Toulmin's argumentation is so attractive and appropriate in medicine
because it follows a line of thought similar to the scientific method
and reasoning in medical practice and research. As we will also see in
forthcoming chapters, Toulmin's model of argumentation backed by the
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