Healthcare and Medicine Reference
In-Depth Information
What's on our mind:
1
Problem in context
Hypothesis; research question(s);
Objectives; setting, initial impression
of the problem
What is the problem with this trac accident
victim as seen in the emergency department?
Leads to
Given this reality ...
2
Grounds (data)
Internal evidence; essence drawn
from the study itself
Given what we noted in him (multiple
fractures and possible internal bleeding)
Moves through a
... because what we know ...
... since as we see it ...
4
3
Backing
Warrant
Understanding of the problem
based on external evidence
(outside the study)
External evidence (other sources
of data and information
from outside the study)
... and based on similar cases
seen and managed well in the past
in our hospital
Provides
authority to
that these cases may be
life threatening
To produce
... once the pros and cons are balanced ...
5
Adducts
Qualier modulators; determinants
of a qualied claim
Serving as
... unless this occurs ...
... speaking in favor of ...
... speaking against ...
6
7
8
Rebuttals (reservations)
Exclusionary circumstances; exceptions;
limits to the claim derived from external
and internal evidence and any other
possible source
... unless there is better care available
elsewhere ...
Support
Elements from grounds and backing,
in light of the warrant, that are in
favor of the claim
... immediate mandatory care at our hospital of
this acute multiple problem is manageable ...
Attenuators
Elements from grounds and backing,
in light of the warrant, that weaken
the certainty about the claim
if conditions in our services will not
change
Presents an exception to a
Tempers a
Justies a
... to this degree, therefore ...
9
Qualier
Strength, certainty or probability
assigned to the claim
so, denitely,
Gives a nal dimension to the
... we stand for this
10
Claim
Proposition reached by reasoning;
conclusion; solution to the problem
in context: impression of cause-eect link,
entity denition, disease magnitude, nature,
decision, action. Acceptance or rejection
of the initial impression (problem in context)
this patient must be admitted right away.
Figure 2.7 Expanded model of Toulmin's modern argument: A medical example.
(Based on Jenicek, M., A Physician's Self-Paced Guide to Critical Thinking , American
Medical Association [AMA Press], Chicago, IL, 2006; Jenicek, M., Fallacy-Free
Reasoning in Medicine. Improving Communication and Decision Making in Research
and Practice , American Medical Association [AMA Press], Chicago, IL, 2009.)
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