Healthcare and Medicine Reference
In-Depth Information
Table 2.1
The Medical Article as an Exercise in Argumentation ( Continued )
What It Does
4. Grounds: (syn. data, support)
Data and/or information that
support the claim. A “facts
and evidence” statement.
Provide essential and
direct basis for the claim.
They are in the “Material
and Methods” and
“Results” sections.
5. Backing
Information that justifies
and makes explicit the
warrant. Experimental and
theoretical foundations
from other sources.
A “given that” statement.
Provides additional
information and
clarification(s) for the
warrant. Justifies the move
from grounds (data) to the
claim. Offers cultural
assumptions, support, and
the theoretical basis for
the warrant.
It is usually in the
“Literature Review”
6. Warrant
Explanation of how grounds
support the claim; general
(other) statements, assump-
tions, propositions bridging
claim, and data. Information
about the arguer's
reasoning. A “general
wisdom about” statement.
Shows how grounds
support the claim. Justifies
the move from data and/or
backing to the claim.
It may be located in
several sections of an
article, “Introduction” and
“Discussion” sections
7. Rebuttals (syn. reservations)
Circumstances invalidating
the claim. An “unless”
Defines limits of the claim.
Offers counter-arguments.
Specifies conditions under
which the claim does not
They should be in the
“Discussion” section.
8. Qualifier (syn. modality)
The arguer's degree of
belief or certainty about
the claim. A “conviction”
Quantifies strengths and
limitations given by the
reasoning process and its
building blocks to the
Some, many, often,
probably, certainly, quite,
presumably, surely,
definitely, almost certainly,
may, with a 75%
probability, and so on.
It should be located in the
“Conclusions” section of
the article.
( Continued )
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