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qualified labor pool. Discriminatory practices against former, existing,
and future employees can adversely impact a company's competitive
efforts. Current and former employees who have been victimized as a
result of discrimination will often discourage potential qualified applicants
from seeking employment with the offending employer. The Level
Playing Field Institute (2003) discovered that approximately one in four
workers who experienced unfairness on the job indicated that they would
be hesitant to recommend their employer to potential employees.
Faculty at the Arizona State A.S.P. Carey School of Business reported
various studies between 2008 and 2011 that estimated the cost of repla-
cing a displaced worker to be between 93% and 200% of the displaced
worker's salary. It was further noted that companies who fail to keep qual-
ified workers, as a result of discriminatory practices, experience a consid-
erable loss on the investment that had been made in the departing
worker. The data support previous findings that training and accommo-
dating a new employee to reach the same level of skills and knowledge of
the displaced one will incur a considerable cost in time and money.
An extensive longitudinal study entitled National Study of Employers
(NSE), reported by Matos and Galinsky (2012) for the Family Work
Institute, examined employer workplace flexibility and effectiveness
between 2005 and 2012. The study addressed the degree to which
employers encouraged workplace benefits that promoted flexibility before
and during the current economic downturn in the United States.
Findings revealed that there were substantial cutbacks during the eco-
nomic downturn in the investment of benefits that involved a direct cost
to companies. This included health care, pension plans, and paid leave
options. Companies, on the other hand, demonstrated a greater willing-
ness to offer flexibility in choices of work locations, flexible working
hours, and time off for personal needs.
The study also found that, where racial minorities represented more
than 50% of the employees of an organization, it suggests a negative effect
and was more likely to demonstrate a lower level of flexibility and effec-
tiveness. When women made up less than 25% percent of the employees,
the organization was more likely to be less flexible and effective. This
study also revealed that when there was greater diversity in management,
an organization was a more flexible and effective workplace. This finding
was also influenced by the degree to which employees experienced job
challenges, learning opportunities, job autonomy, supervisory support,
and a climate of respect, trust, and economic security.
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