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the loss of an automobile, repossession of personal property, foreclosure on
a house, loss of medical care, and food shortages.
An abundance of research finds that economic hardship is the most
consistent outcome of unemployment ( Fryer & Payne, 1986 ). An addi-
tional impact of discrimination is the often hidden cost on many other
aspects of life. This includes a greater possibility for the deterioration of
mental health ( Kessler, Turner, & House, 1988 ). The most common
mental health costs related to job loss are increases in anxiety, somatic
symptoms, and depression ( Dooley, Catalano, & Wilson, 1994 ). In addi-
tion to the adverse effects of unemployment on mental health, research
implicates the cost of workplace discrimination as a contributing factor to
other related outcomes. These outcomes include suicide, separation and
divorce, alcohol abuse, and violence in the workplace ( Liem & Liem,
1988; Stack, 1981 ).
Racial and ethnic groups are more likely to be exposed to hazardous
work conditions than are their white counterparts, as a result of discrimi-
nation. Bullard and Wright (1987) noted this propensity and indicated that
injuries are likely to vary with the type of work that one is engaged in.
One of the most likely reasons, they noted, was that occupational injuries
are highly dependent on the type of job and industry, and minorities tend
to work in more hazardous occupations. Tough economic times have defi-
nitely impacted a great number of workers. It has made it even more diffi-
cult for women and other minorities to find and keep any job, without
also having to endure the additional cost of workplace discrimination.
EMPLOYERS ' COSTS RELATED TO DIVERSITY AND
DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE
The consequences of employers' ignoring diversity in the workplace will
ultimately be costs of time, money, and efficiency. Some of the other con-
sequences include: loss of productivity, due to increased conflict; inability
to attract and retain a range of talented people; and legal actions. Ignoring
diversity can lead to discrimination, which can result in lost investment in
recruitment and training. A study by Robinson and Dechant (1997) found
that the cost of workplace discrimination in the United States has been
conservatively estimated to exceed 64 billion dollars. These costs arise from
losing and replacing over 2 million workers annually because of unfairness
and workplace discrimination. Much of the data confirm that a business
that discriminates based upon characteristics such as race, ethnicity, gender,
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