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￿ African Americans and Hispanics aged 20 to 24 had a higher unem-
ployment rate than people between the ages of 25 and 54.
￿ Younger African Americans' unemployment rate rose 4.8 percentage
points each year since 2007, reaching 26.4% in 2009.
￿ Unemployment among young Hispanics increased by 4.7% to 17.2%
between 2007 and 2009.
President Obama (2006) described these circumstances in graphic
terms. He stated that “in spite of all the progress that has been made in
the past four decades, a continuous gap remains between the overall living
standards of Black, Latino, and white workers”.
The DOL data in 2009 revealed that:
￿ The average wage for black workers is 75% of the average white wage.
￿ The average Latino wage is 71% of the average white wage.
￿ Black median net worth is about $6,000.
￿ Latino median net worth is about $8,000.
￿ The median net worth is about $88,000 for whites.
When laid off from work or experiencing an emergency, blacks and
Latinos have lower reserve savings to draw on than do white workers.
Middle-class blacks and Latinos also pay more for insurance, are less likely to
own their own homes, and suffer poorer health than Americans as a whole.
In relation to the workplace, White (2003) reported that, during harder
economic times, some employers will treat their employees with a much
more cavalier attitude. For example, if an employee doesn't like their treat-
ment, some employers believe that they can find another employee to
replace them. Some employers assume that workers that are feeling dis-
criminated against during bad times will tend to hang on longer and
endure that treatment. Another example of disparate treatment is that, in
good economic times, people assume they are supposed to support diver-
sity, and they are often inclined to hire a minority candidate to get affirma-
tive action credit; but when times are hard, employers tend to look out for
their own group and isolate outsiders, and that's when discrimination
related to diversity can begin to clearly reveal itself.
THE COST TO WORKERS OF DISCRIMINATION
IN THE WORKPLACE
When addressing the cost of workplace discrimination, it is important to
determine what concerns and barriers to fairness are most critical to the
employer and to the workers. Although specific internal barriers, which
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