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found that professors may also be victims of sexual harassment from stu-
dents. They discovered that male professors receive casual unwanted sex-
ual attention, but appear to experience actual sexual harassment from
students at about the same rate as females. The authors suggest that future
areas of study should look at men who are being harassed by women and
other men and why they do not report it ( Waldo, Berdahl, & Fitzgerald,
1998 ). The authors also suggested that there might be a need to develop
explicit policies that discourage sexual activity by either faculty or stu-
dents. Faculty members also need to know that they can take action if a
student is sexually harassing them, regardless of the sex or gender of the
Much of the literature dealing with workplace management theory
and practice deals with employment discrimination and due process.
Workplace issues of sexual harassment and related emotional abuse of
employees by supervisors or managers are seldom addressed. An organi-
zation becomes a sexually abusive environment when it permits or toler-
ates this behavior by employees, supervisors, or managers. The media
regularly report incidences of maltreatment and violence facing society,
such as child, domestic, or elderly abuse. Although it is extremely
important, workplace sexual harassment and emotional abuse are rarely
As a greater number of employees become emotionally and physically
harmed as a result of sexual harassment, employers are beginning to re-
examine their workplace management practices. The level of workplace
stress has also been intensified by the economic downturn, mergers, and
restructuring. Many organizations have felt a need to eliminate more jobs,
resulting in a greater increase in workplace stress and sexual harassment.
Workplace sexual harassment is becoming a greater organizational prob-
lem, and employers are beginning to realize its consequences for manage-
ment, employees, and families.
Methods of dealing with sexual harassment as a management problem
and a source of increased litigation have been studied by various investiga-
tors. Several found that there can be very significant costs to the employer
( Fitzgerald & Ormerod, 1993; Gutek, 1985; Kauppinen-Toropainen &
Gruber, 1993 ). Companies have attempted to address the problem
through various prevention strategies. Employers established sexual
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