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In further findings, Li and Hambrick (2005) report that the greater
the emotional conflict in a group, the greater the team conflict. While
conflict can be healthy, especially when there are explicit norms that sup-
port debate and contention, a very high level of task conflict can cause
member dissatisfaction and withdrawal from group efforts. Jehn (1995)
found that task conflict was negatively related to member satisfaction,
intention to remain in a group, and group production. In a meta-analysis
of worker conflict studies, DeDreu & Weingart (2003) found a negative
association between task conflict and both member satisfaction and group
performance. According to the authors, a high level of task conflict—
accompanied by intense disagreement and possibly even outright argu-
ments—drives members apart. The ensuing tension will become highly
stressful, and group members may insulate their activities from each other.
In this vein, Hambrick, Li, and Tsui (2001) reported an instance of a fac-
tional joint venture management group in which conflict led to behav-
ioral disintegration so severe that “They sharply reduced their
interactions; decision-making became rigid and mechanical and several
scheduled management meetings were cancelled” (pp. 1046 1047).
Another finding by Li and Hambrick (2005) is that the greater the
task conflict in a group, the greater the behavioral disintegration. Social
psychologists have long noted the positive effects on group performance
of the main elements of behavioral integration: communication, collabo-
ration, and joint decision-making. Shaw wrote that, “if a group is to
function effectively, its members must be able to communicate easily and
efficiently” (1981, p. 150). Similarly, Hambrick (1995) concluded from
field interviews that behavioral disintegration generally led to group pro-
blems including failure to exchange key information, poor coordination
of activities, and difficulty in formulating and implementing responses to
environmental shifts. Behavioral disintegration within a group will be
negatively associated with subsequent group performance.
The greater the emotional conflict in a group, the lower the subse-
quent group performance. The greater the task conflict in a group, the
lower the subsequent group performance. Emotional conflict and task
conflict bring about behavioral disintegration. As Li and Hambrick
(2005) note, “Although diversity within a group can yield benefits
(e.g., Jehn, Northcraft, & Neale, 1999 ) prior research indicates that het-
erogeneity often impairs group functioning ( Williams & O'Reilly, 1998 )”
(p. 798). The authors go on to say that “even though factional groups are
often formed out of a belief that the two sets of members possess valuable
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