Healthcare and Medicine Reference
In-Depth Information
Theory Z
One additional leadership style that affects motivation to work and job
satisfaction is Theory Z ( Ouchi, 1981 ). This theory, also known as the
Japanese approach to management, focuses on increasing employee loy-
alty to the organization by providing a job for life with a strong focus
on the well-being of the employee, both on and off the job. According
to Ouchi, Theory Z management tends to promote stable employment,
high productivity, and high employee morale and satisfaction. Whether
this approach can be sustained in difficult economic times is question-
able since even Japanese companies have laid workers off and changed
their policy of lifetime job security as a result of the poor worldwide
Determining Burnout
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach & Jackson, 1986 ) is the
most well accepted and frequently used way of determining burnout. The
MBI consists of 22 questions and three subscales which measure interre-
lated aspects of burnout, including emotional exhaustion (EE), deperson-
alization, and personal accomplishment. The MBI takes 10 15 minutes
to complete; in some busy settings this may lead to either socially desir-
able answers (answers the test taker thinks are the most positive or nega-
tive but do not actually represent his or her true feelings) or answers that
are not well thought through. Instead, Hansen (2010) found that asking
workers just one question—“Are you emotionally exhausted?”—was as
effective in determining burnout as giving the entire instrument.
Measures of depression such as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies
Depression Scale (CES-D), which is free and can be found on the topic
website, may be just as good a measure of burnout as the MBI, which
can be expensive to give since there is a fee for each copy used.
A concept that is increasingly used in the helping, medical, and teach-
ing professions is compassion fatigue. Compassion fatigue refers to a
decline in the ability to experience joy or to feel and care for others, and
occurs in professionals who expend a great deal of energy and compassion
on others, yet get little positive feedback or inner peace for their labors.
Compassion fatigue may also be seen as an extreme form of stress in
which the professional begins to experience secondary traumatic stress
because of the physical and emotional trauma of taking care of people in
dire need.
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