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under-challenged, and worn out. The characteristics of each type are as
follows.
￿ Frenetic type : The frenetic type of worker is highly dedicated and
committed to their work. Feelings of dissatisfaction cause them to
work even harder. Frenetic workers are often tenacious, energetic, and
invested in their work and might be considered highly idealistic by
most colleagues. Additionally, they are often unable to acknowledge
failure, and they set unrealistically high goals for themselves. When
those goals are not met, they often feel great negativity about them-
selves, neglect their own personal needs, and respond to themselves
and others with anxiety, irritability, and depression. Glicken (2010)
called these workers “idealistic workaholics.”
￿ Under-challenged type : The under-challenged worker has lost
interest in his or her occupation and does their work in a superficial
way. They have little motivation, see no new challenges, and lack a
desire to be more involved on the job. Behaviors associated with the
under-challenged worker are indifference, an unwillingness to develop
as a person, obsession with finding new jobs and new careers without
actually following through, and often complaining about how monot-
onous the work is and how bored they are.
￿ Worn-out type : The worn-out worker has lost all optimism about
his or her job, including even considering other work or new assign-
ments. They have essentially given up, neglected their work-related
responsibilities, feel no control over the situation, often feel depressed,
and have difficulties performing assigned work tasks. Farber believes
that worn-out workers are often the byproducts of inflexible, rigid,
bureaucratic organizations where everything is done following arcane
rules and procedures no one really knows or understands and that
hide the fact that there is unfairness in almost all the decisions made
regarding salaries, promotions, and work assignments. Workers at
greatest risk of this type of burnout often work in large organizations
providing little recognition, support, or appreciation for their work.
Freudenberger and North (1985) believe that burnout often shows
itself in the following phases:
1. The need to prove oneself on the job.
2. Taking on increasing amounts of work to the point of work's becom-
ing a compulsion.
3. Neglecting personal needs.
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