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have a more equal power distribution, and (4) their passivity or assertive-
ness in achieving success. For example, Saari and Judge (2004) found that
workers in the United States were high on individualism, wanted equality
in the workplace, and were high on risk-taking, whereas workers in
Mexico were low on individualism, high on the notion of power coming
from top management, and low on risk-taking. Keep in mind, however,
that as workers assimilate in the United States their work-related behavior
becomes more like that of native-born Americans. Nonetheless, it's useful
to think that culture and country of origin may affect the way workers
view their place in an organization and, consequently, their job satisfaction.
One of the primary reasons for worker unhappiness is explained by the
concept of workplace inequity. Taris, Kalimo, and Schaufeli (2002) found
that an imbalance in equity, or a feeling that a worker was being treated
unfairly, resulted in “emotional exhaustion, cynicism, lack of professional
efficacy, sickness, absence, and health complaints” (p. 297). Adams (1963,
1965) believed that people pursue a balance between their work inputs—
such as time, attention, skills, and effort—and the rewards of their work,
including status, appreciation, gratitude, and pay. According to Adams, any
disturbance in that balance will have negative outcomes because workers
receive less than what they believe they are entitled to.
Tracy's study of workers aboard cruise ships describes burnout as “a general
wearing out or alienation from the pressures of work” ( Tracy, 2000 ,p.6).
Burnout is generally thought to be the end result of job dissatisfaction and
low morale. To be burned out is not the same as being burned up.
Workers who are burned out can have renewing experiences and time-
outs that bring back their motivation to work and satisfaction with their
jobs. Burned up workers are so depressed and unmotivated with their jobs
that it may be difficult or impossible to improve motivation and perfor-
mance. Burn up happens when burnout goes untreated for too long a
period of time. Think of burn up as the final stages of a long-term clinical
Maslach (1993) described three dimensions of worker burnout: (a)
emotional exhaustion; (b) depersonalization, defined as a negative attitude
towards customers and clients, a personal detachment, or loss of ideals;
and (c) reduced personal accomplishment and commitment to the profes-
sion. Farber (1990) suggests three types of burned out workers: frenetic,
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