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Harrison, Newman, and Roth (2006) reported that low job satisfaction
is a very strong predictor of absenteeism, lateness, reduced productivity,
high staff turnover, and low morale. These behaviors often have a profound
impact on other employees and can be cumulative throughout an organiza-
tion. Believing that getting rid of an unhappy employee will reduce job
dissatisfaction in an organization fails to consider that the open unhappiness
of one worker may not take into account other workers who keep their
unhappiness to themselves but have all the symptoms and behaviors of job
Organ (1988) found that job unhappiness negatively affects organiza-
tional citizenship, a behavior that may undermine the morale of others
and create organization-wide withdrawal from the extra effort that may
be needed to keep the organization functioning during difficult times.
Judge, Thoresen, Bono, & Patton (2001) note that job satisfaction is par-
ticularly important for professional workers performing complex jobs.
Judge and Watanabe (1994) found that job dissatisfaction had a spillover
effect and negatively impacted personal life, often resulting in increased
levels of depression, minor illness, alcohol and drug use and, in some
cases, disrupted domestic relationships and family violence. Although
some might argue that spillover has more to do with personal traits of the
worker, Wheaton (1990) found that the evidence clearly shows that what
workers experience on the job has a clear spillover effect and, when the
experience is bad, work may negatively affect mental health.
This is not to say that the job itself is always the reason workers expe-
rience job distress and unhappiness. Selecting workers ill-suited for a job,
or a mismatch between the worker's personal goals and ways of working
with those of the organization, may increase job unhappiness. Key per-
sonality traits can also influence job satisfaction. Judge, Bono, and Locke
(2000) report that a worker's positive or negative self-evaluation influ-
ences job satisfaction, as does extraversion and conscientiousness. Workers
with very positive evaluations of themselves and who are also outgoing
and conscientious often have high levels of job satisfaction.
Hofstede (1980, 1985) found that the country of origin and culture of
a worker often influences their fit within an organization. The researcher
said that there were four cross-cultural behaviors that influenced comfort
with an organization and work output: (1) whether they view themselves
as individuals with distinct needs and aspirations or part of a large whole;
(2) their willingness to take risks or just to do what they were told to do;
(3) their comfort with a top-down organizational structure or a desire to
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