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The interactive format may not have allowed some interns to obtain the
contact they might receive in a live face-to-face supervisory interaction
regarding highly personal information (problems with countertransfer-
ence, for example). Supervisees did not get all the supervisory time they
needed, since interactive technology required good competencies and
self-directed learning styles. Some interns, according to the authors, were
not ready for this style of supervision. Technology was often plagued by
problems and, because of this, immediate feedback was not always avail-
able. Interactive technologies are not as secure as onsite supervision, and
client confidentiality may be a problem because of hackers and intrusive
technologies that allow others to view, hear, or see supervisory confer-
ences and emails.
In a further study of the use of interactive approaches to supervision,
Gainor and Constantine (2002) compared two randomly selected cohorts
of counseling psychology doctoral students to determine whether sensi-
tivity to diversity increased if group composition included ethnic and
racial diversity. One randomly selected group received their supervision
in person while a second group received their supervision using the
Internet. Both groups improved on tests to measure sensitivity to multi-
culturalism, but the face-to-face group improved more. The authors
believe that the reasons why the in-person group had better improvement
included the following.
￿ The lack of non-verbal cues to correctly perceive behavior in the
web-based group made it difficult for supervisors to determine group
members who were having difficulty with diversity.
￿ Critical information may be omitted in web-based groups because the
group process is limited and the supervisor can't see behavior that may
need to be followed up on.
￿ Ladany, Hill, Corbett, and Nutt (1996) found that a third of the stu-
dents being supervised in their study using face-to-face supervision
failed to disclose racial or ethnic bias against clients, and that this num-
ber could increase in web-based supervision.
￿ Robson and Robson (1998) suggest that, although computer technol-
ogy can be used for intimate communication, impersonation and
impersonalization may increase personal barriers to intimacy.
￿ Even though face-to-face supervision was more effective in improving
multiculturalism, the authors are realistic about the benefits and sug-
gest that supervision might be enhanced by using both direct contact
and web-based supervision, particularly for those supervisory functions
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