Healthcare and Medicine Reference
Management style: Lack of participation by workers in decision-
making, poor communication in the organization, lack of family-
friendly policies. (Chapters 8 and 9 of this topic propose approaches
to management intended to reduce worker stress.)
Interpersonal relationships: Poor social environment and lack of
support or help from co-workers and supervisors.
Work roles: Conflicting or uncertain job expectations, too much
responsibility, too many “hats to wear.”
Career concerns: Job insecurity and lack of opportunity for growth,
advancement, or promotion; rapid changes for which workers are
Environmental conditions: Unpleasant or dangerous physical con-
ditions such as crowding, noise, air pollution, or ergonomic problems.
Storey and Billingham (2001) have a similar but slightly different idea
of what produces workplace stress and suggest the following potential
conditions in the workplace that may lead to stress:
The physical climate of a workplace: Poor working conditions can
cause stress. This may include overcrowding, unbearable levels of noise,
immoderate temperatures in a building, long commutes to get to work,
unsafe conditions on the job, poorly built or uncomfortable office
space, and smells that can be offensive.
The worker's role in the organization: Four factors influence role
issues: role conflict or incompatibility between one's values and beliefs
and those of the organization; uncertainty about duties and responsibili-
ties; too much to accomplish and too little time to do it; an expectation
that work must be done which is beyond a worker's level of ability.
Wo r k r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Because human service work often takes place in
a team context, teams provide both relief from stress and an increase in
stress because teams are not always supportive of individual colleagues.
Organizational structure and climate: The extent to which a
worker can be involved in and influence decision-making processes can
have a significant positive or negative effect. All too often organizations
make changes without consulting workers and face morale problems as
a result. Asking workers to take on more decision-making for the orga-
nization than they can handle also has potential for increasing stress.
The impact of one's personal life on work and the interface
between work and home: Workers are affected by their jobs when
stress becomes high. Similarly, their work is affected when personal
into the workplace. Marital and relationship
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