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economic downturn, it is important that they receive work-based and
non-work-based social support from friends, family, and colleagues. Lim
and Sng (2006) and Zhao, Lim, and Teo (2012) indicated that there are
moderating effects of work-based support on job insecurity and other
work- and career-related outcomes, including:
￿ job dissatisfaction;
￿ proactive job search;
￿ noncompliant job behaviors;
￿ non-work-based support;
￿ life dissatisfaction.
It has been suggested that support derived from others at the work-
place can contribute significantly in buffering individuals against job
dissatisfaction and noncompliant job behaviors. Equally important is
support provided by family and friends that may buffer individuals against
negative outcomes such as life dissatisfaction associated with job insecu-
rity. Diener and Seligman (2004) and Lyubomirsky, King, and Diener
(2005) imply that helping and social support can provide purpose and
focus for people going through major life crises and transitions. It was
also noted that social support is an important factor in predicting the
physical health and overall well-being for many people, ranging from
childhood through older adults. Initial social support, when people know
that they are valued by others, is a determining factor in successfully
overcoming life stress. This can be an important psychological factor in
helping people cope with the negative aspects of job loss. Social support
not only helps improve a job-displaced worker's well-being, it is a major
factor in preventing negative symptoms such as depression and anxiety
Isaacs (2011) wrote that children throughout the United States con-
tinue to be negatively impacted by the ongoing effects of the economic
downturn. Children in some states are being impacted by the recession in
ways that are not always obvious. Some economic data ignore children,
while other information is long delayed. Espey, Harper, and Jones (2010)
reported that when social support is provided for children and other
dependants of job-displaced workers, their health and social development
is enhanced. The recent economic downturn has demonstrated negative
effects caused by inadequate attention to support for children and the
risks to their education, health, and overall well-being. There have been
limited measures to address the impact of the recent economic downturn
on children, even when data indicating negative consequences are avail-
able. Businesses and organizations would do well to recognize the value
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