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integrated service networks came to serve as a model for transforming the
mental health system in Qu´bec, and this provides a frame of reference
for this chapter. This approach addresses some of the challenges and issues
raised in the mental health sector and more generally as a context for
improving other human service systems.
Foster-Fishman, Berkowitz, Lounsbury, Jacobson, and Allen (2001)
presented the results of a comprehensive qualitative analysis of 80 articles,
chapters, and practitioners' guides that focused on collaboration and coali-
tion functioning. The purpose of this review was to describe how an
integrative and collaborative approach captured the core competencies
and processes needed within collaborative bodies to facilitate their success.
The resulting framework for building collaborative capacity described
four critical levels of collaborative capacity: member capacity, relational
capacity, organizational capacity, and programmatic capacity. Each level
described the effective strategies for building each type of capacity. The
overall implication of this analysis was that core competencies and pro-
grammatic capacity were supported on each of the collaborative levels.
During the economic downturn, working alliances between social
services programs, medical providers, and other professionals can be
important for the provision of more effective services for the most vulnera-
ble members of the workforce. Hudson, Hardy, Henwood, and Wistow
(1999) describe recommendations and findings concerning the increasing
need for working alliances and collaboration between health and social
services providers. They also suggest how some obstacles might be over-
come in order to improve the integration of services for displaced workers.
Johnson, Wistow, Schulz, and Hardy (2003) noted that many human
service providers had been unable to adequately provide many preventa-
tive services, because of an increase in crisis management requests.
During the recent economic downturn, community service agencies such
as FIBCO Family Services (2012) in Phoenix, Arizona have also reported
an increase in the urgent needs of vulnerable people. Not only has there
been an increase in crisis situations, but FIBCO and many other agencies
have reported that problems have also become much more complex.
There has been an increase in the needs of people who are new to receiv-
ing services such as emergency shelter and food banks. Increased financial
burdens are also associated with greater mental health issues, addictions,
domestic abuse, and suicide. Other related concerns include children who
are no longer receiving childcare and youth who are unable to participate
in summer camps or other recreational activities.
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