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perceived as unsafe, unattractive, or unfriendly. Supportive, positive social
relationships are necessary for well-being. There are data suggesting that
well-being leads to good social relationships. In addition, evidence indi-
cates that people suffer when they are displaced from groups or have poor
relationships in new groups. The fact that positive neighborhood relation-
ships are important to the well-being of displaced workers, there are
many implications for the QoL in other life domains.
Work Loss Circumstances and Overall QoL
Displaced workers will need to reconsider the priorities in their lives and
emphasize what is most important and controllable. For instance, as a
result of job loss, displaced workers should carefully consider the issues
related to relocating to a new neighborhood. They will also need to
recognize that losing a job may sever long-term friendships and therefore
be detrimental to their well-being.
Displaced workers who deal with work loss circumstances with positive
life satisfaction will have a better overall QoL and subjective well-being.
They can be more helpful to other people at home and in other areas of
their life domains and have better social relationships than people with a
low sense of well-being. For example, they are more likely to get married,
stay married, and have rewarding marriages. Finally, a positive QoL is
related to health and longevity, although the pathways linking these
domains are not fully understood. Happiness or well-being is not only
valuable because it feels good, but also has overall beneficial consequences.
CONCEPTUAL DOMAINS USED IN QOLT ASSESSMENT
AND INTERVENTION
Subjective well-being or happiness has been defined as QoL in a number
of ways. It has been generally agreed that it is defined with regard to how
people evaluate the emotional reactions and cognitive judgments of their
lives. This can include a sense of peace, personal fulfillment, and life satis-
faction. Subjective well-being encompasses moods and emotions and how
well an individual evaluates their satisfaction with general and specific
areas of their lives. When they are integrated, subjective well-being and
life satisfaction constitute one's quality of life ( Diener & Larsen, 1993;
Frisch et al., 1992 ).
Grant, Salcedo, Hynan, and Frisch (1995) reported that QoL refers to
the extent
that people experience positive thoughts
and feelings.
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