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since work occupies a central place in people's lives. Subjective well-
being or happiness and life satisfaction are not only affected by unemploy-
ment but there is a lasting effect after individuals regain employment
( Aytac & Rankin, 2009 ). As noted earlier in this chapter a central premise
of QoL theory ( Lazarus, 1991; Pavot & Diener, 1993 ) is that changing
the value or importance attributed to specific areas of life can dramatically
affect overall life satisfaction. For example, involuntary loss of work that
was previously highly valued may be compensated for by reducing the
value of work to a marginal place in a person's life. A displaced worker
might then focus on being a better spouse, parent, enhancing self-esteem,
improving health, developing friendships, bettering the neighborhood, or
boosting other life domains.
Work Loss Circumstances and Children
McLoyd (1989) found that one of the most significant circumstances
related to an economic downturn was the effect that it has on how
displaced workers get along with their children. Research on the impact
of paternal job loss on children shows that some direct effects have been
found, but most effects are indirect. Loss of work due to the economic
downturn will often result in changes in a particular parent's behavior and
disposition. Loss of work may cause changes in a parent's lifestyle or
career and how that affects their children's self-esteem. It will also deter-
mine how a parent spends most of their time. Loss of work can result in
missing creative challenges that employment brought, resulting in a lack
of positive engagement with children. Lack of money earned on a job
might alienate children from friends and neighbors. Parents who become
unemployed may not engage in favorite hobbies or pastimes with their
children. Loss of income may require children to relocate to new schools
and establish relationships with people with whom they are unfamiliar.
Displaced workers' families will experience a variety of factors that influ-
ence the downgrading of their QoL.
Circumstances related to the effect of parent's involuntary work loss
can be quite serious. McLoyd (1989) found that some parents may respond
to economic loss with increased irritability and pessimism and become
less supportive, more punitive and arbitrary in their interactions with the
child. This behavior increases the risk for socio-emotional problems,
deviant behavior, and reduced aspirations
in children. Children may
the unemployed parent's negative temperament and relationship
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