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values work more highly will have their overall judgments of life satisfac-
tion influenced more by work than by recreational satisfaction. Lazarus
(1991) and Pavot and Diener (1993) noted that changing the value or
importance attributed to specific areas of life can dramatically affect over-
all life satisfaction. For example, involuntary loss of work that was previ-
ously highly valued may reduce the value of work to a marginal place in
a person's life, whereby a person might then focus on being a better
spouse or parent.
Campbell, Converse, and Rodgers (1976) discovered in their study
that all of the measures of the work domain on QoL were positively
inter-correlated. This was found to be especially true for workers with
the highest levels of satisfaction with their job. This group of workers also
expressed the highest levels of satisfaction with non-work domains such
as family life and friendships. Satisfaction with the job and non-work
domains was also high among all other workers in the study.
The QoL measures described by Higginson and Carr (2001) as having
the potential to assist routine clinical practice that can be related to the
workplace are as follows:
￿ prioritizing problems of displaced workers;
￿ active communication with at-risk and displaced workers;
￿ screening workers for potential problems;
￿ identifying workers' QoL preferences;
￿ monitoring change or response to treatment of workers.
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF QOLT MEASURES
In the past there have been few assessment and intervention studies directly
aimed at increasing an individual's QoL, outside of specific medical or
psychological areas that were empirically evaluated ( Evans, 1994 ). In gen-
eral, QoL interventions were often considered to be impractical and invalid
measures. This was especially true when attempts were made to directly
administer QoL interventions independently to functional, non-clinical
subjects, with no apparent QoL deficits or risk factors. It is most likely
that employing QOLT became more useful for health providers and other
helping professionals while treating a specific physical illness/disability or a
psychological disturbance.
QOLT ( Frisch, 1998a,b ) was initially used while studying a sample of
clients
selected for both low QoL and in conjunction with various
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