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characteristics” of work life have been destructive to their overall QoL.
Workers may need to be encouraged to make objective efforts to alter or
adjust other areas of their lives as a result of the work loss. Quality of Life
Therapy may be used to assess a person's subjective perception or attitude
as a result of losing work. This may also influence their QoL in unpre-
dicted life domains. QOLT can assist in helping a person understand how
they cognitively interpret work loss circumstances once they are
perceived. This could include deciding what individual choices and values
are given to one's overall QoL.
There are numerous standardized QoL instruments that have empiri-
cally demonstrated strengths for particular purposes and tasks. Some
instruments are used for clinical assessment purposes and others for
screening and monitoring activities. The scale and inventory described
above was initially derived from the Satisfaction with Life Scale, a
cognitive-therapy-based model developed by Diener, Emmons, Larson
and Griffen (1985) primarily to measure the judgmental component of
subjective well-being. This instrument was determined to be a good
multidimensional item scale with very good relationship between mea-
sures and reliability. The Frisch (1992) Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI)
which borrowed from this concept was selected as a generic model and is
applicable to the assessment of displaced workers. It also possesses fair to
good internal consistency and reliability. The QOLI has been found to
have good convergent validity with the Diener Satisfaction with Life
Scale and various other Quality of Life Index scores. The Frisch QOLT
conceptual model is consistent with the approach of the World Health
Organization (WHO, 2006) . Combining elements of QOLT with the
WHO's and other approaches emphasizes considerations that can be
related to job-displaced workers' cultural, psychological, and spiritual
functioning.
ISSUES RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE OUTCOMES
Carr, Scott, Thompson, and Silman (1996) suggested that QoL measures
can assist in depicting both the personal and social context of job
displacement outcomes. QoL outcome measures can be used in screening
for work-loss-related problems, prioritizing problems, monitoring change,
and identifying clients' personal feelings and preferences. QoL outcomes
that are related to the economic downturn are often portrayed as short-
term events, but a substantial body of literature that was described earlier,
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