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QUALITY OF LIFE THERAPY
Michael Frisch (2006) developed the “CASIO” model as part of Quality
of Life Therapy (QOLT), which is a linear, additive model of life satisfac-
tion where QoL intervention may lead to an improvement in other
domains of life. This model is applicable to work-related issues since it is
generic and can be used as a non-clinical measure. Frisch defined non-
clinical as applying to individuals or groups without mental health
problems defined as a disorder in the DSM-IV-TR manual of disorders
( American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ). Quality of Life Therapy rests
on an assumption that an individual's overall life satisfaction consists
largely of the sum of specific satisfactions, in particular “domains” or areas
of life that are valued as important by the individual. Diener (1984) and
Clark, Beck, and Alford (1999) set forth an underlying concept that is
addressed in this chapter as a combined cognitive-affective or life satisfac-
tion model which is synonymous with personal happiness. There is
general support for this concept based upon a number of studies by
researchers who were instrumental in developing the QOLT/CASIO
model ( Campbell Converse, & Rodgers, 1976; Diener & Diener, 1995;
Evans, 1994; Frisch, 2006; Michalos, 1991 ). Frisch offers an example of
this approach that states “a working mother might be more content than
a homemaker because satisfactions in one domain (e.g., work, family life
and children) may minimize the effects of dissatisfaction in other areas of
life.”
Frisch (2006) described some basic elements of Quality of Life
Therapy with the CASIO construct, which outlines the individual
life
satisfaction and subjective well-being model as follows:
￿ C: Objective characteristics and living conditions ;
￿ A: Perceived or subjective characteristics or attitudes ;
￿ S: Evaluation based on personal standards of fulfillment and overall
satisfaction ;
￿ I: Satisfaction weighted by importance or value;
￿O: Overall satisfaction in valued areas of life.
This model essentially describes how individual satisfaction with a par-
ticular area of life is composed of the five components that are listed above.
These QoL measures may determine that a worker's subjective satis-
faction with work could be related to the work itself, such as relationships
with co-workers, management, the work environment, and job security.
As a result of work loss an individual might perceive that the “objective
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