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life. Happiness can be viewed as a complex process that is related to specific
domains of QoL that are directly affected by the loss of a working life. The
relationship of the loss of a quality working life to the happiness aspect of
QoL remains relatively unexplored and unexplained. A review of the liter-
ature reveals relatively little on this subject, and this issue may lead to not
using appropriate QoL measures or indicators. A consideration of the value
of a quality working life provides a greater context for understanding other
subjective well-being issues related to displacement from the workplace
such as loss of self-esteem and family stress.
Hackman and Oldham (1975) and other authors proposed components
of quality of working life measures which included a range of positive fac-
tors that would no longer contribute to a worker's overall quality of life
were he or she to be displaced. Warr, Cook, and Wall (1979) describe
some of the subjective well-being aspects of quality of working life that
might be lost to displaced workers:
￿ A positive and secure work environment;
￿ An intrinsic job motivation;
￿ Positive goals and values;
￿ Enhanced self-esteem;
￿ Opportunity for creativity;
￿ Enabling of helping;
￿ Feeling of happiness and contentment;
￿ Supportive relationships.
Lawler (1982) found that quality of working life is conceptually similar
to the subjective well-being or happiness of workers but differs from job
satisfaction, which primarily relates to the workplace domain. Quality of
working life has been viewed as incorporating a range of needs that not
only include work-based factors such as job satisfaction, pay and relation-
ships with supervisors and workplace colleagues, but also includes feelings
concerning relationships between work and non-work life domains
( Danna & Griffin, 1999 ).
Diener and Seligman (2004) reported that unemployment and job
insecurity are related to “depression, fear, anxiety, insomnia and somatic
symptoms.” It was found that individuals who are affected by economic
adversity rely upon psychological support as well as other subjective
factors. As a result of the current economic downturn job-displaced
workers are more than likely to experience challenges to issues such as
parenting roles,
love relationships, social
lives, and achieving personal
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