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models listed above were derived primarily from an integration of other
research regarding basic human needs that includes:
￿ Maslow's (1954) hierarchy of needs;
￿ Sirgy and Samli's (1995) Need Hierarchy Measure of Life Satisfaction;
￿ Greenley, Greenberg, and Brown's (1997) Quality of Life Questionnaire;
￿ Frisch's (1998, 2006; Frisch et al., 1992) Quality of Life Inventory.
Frisch (2006) provides an extensive discussion of this issue, which is
the main perspective of this chapter. This perspective of QoL was
described as Quality of Life Therapy (QOLT):
￿ a multidimensional construct based upon multiple individual needs
that reflect community, national, and global levels.
￿ Each need is assumed to contribute in a different degree to each other
and to overall QoL.
It relates to the subject of this chapter in that involuntary job displace-
ment can create a change in the QoL work domain and impact other
related categories and factors, or “domains,” of a worker's life.
This section will address various implications of the recent economic
downturn, involuntary job displacement, and how worker quality of life
may be affected by these issues. Brand, Becca, and Burgard (2008) and
other writers have written about how involuntary job displacement such
as layoffs and plant closings independently affect mental and physical
health as well as financial well-being. Fewer studies have investigated the
overall effects on QoL when workers are suddenly displaced as a result of
a severe economic downturn. For example, a number of studies looked at
the onset of depression and other mental health conditions among
workers who were nearing retirement (e.g., Brand, Levy, & Gallo, 2008 ).
They found significantly less depression among imminent retirees than
among workers who experienced unanticipated
Other areas of inquiry have investigated the greater impact of eco-
nomic downturns on job-displaced workers who experience disparities
due to racial and ethnic categories, gender, age, types of industry, etc.
( Smeeding, 2010 ). Other writers recognized the economic downturn's
negative effect on issues such as family divorce and fertility rates and the
use of leisure time. Research into economic downturns and subsequent
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