Healthcare and Medicine Reference
In-Depth Information
￿
Specific measures:
￿ Health Measurement Questionnaire ( Kind & Gudex, 1994 );
￿ Quality of Life in Depression Scale ( Hunt & McKenna, 1992 );
￿ Quality of Life Index for Mental Health ( Sainfort, Becker, &
Diamond, 1996 );
￿ Quality of Life Scale ( Heinrichs, Hanlon, & Carpenter, 1984 );
￿
Schedule for
the Evaluation of
Individual Quality of Life
( O'Boyle, 1994 ).
Diener and Suh (1999) were instrumental in the development of the
Quality of Life Model and the Integrative Quality of Life Model.
Quality of Life Model (QoL)
This model conceptualizes QoL as the extent to which objective human
needs are fulfilled in relation to personal or group perceptions of subjec-
tive well-being and life satisfaction.
￿
Subjective well-being or happiness is assessed by individual or group
responses to questions about happiness or life satisfaction. Life satisfaction
is an empirically valid construct that has been defined as a subjective
measure that an individual can identify when their needs or desires are
being successfully fulfilled ( Frisch, 2006 ). The positive aspects of happi-
ness come from feeling that their standards for achieving life satisfactions
have been met. As stated by Frisch (2006) , “the perceived gap between
what we have and what we want to have in valued areas of life deter-
mines our level of life satisfaction or dissatisfaction.” The relation
between specific human needs and perceived life satisfaction involves
both factors being affected by mental capacity, cultural context, informa-
tion, education, temperament, etc. This includes:
￿ The extent to which desires are matched by experience;
￿ The domains that individuals consider as important in their lives;
￿ Distinct but related factors which are sometimes viewed as separate
domains in QoL measures;
￿ Both cognitive and affective measures obtained by weighting the
sum of all separate domains that equate to overall Quality of Life.
Integrative Model of QoL
Quality of life is also represented as the interaction of human needs and
the subjective perception of their fulfillment, mediated by the opportu-
nities available to meet needs. Diener and Suh (1999) noted that the
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