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relevant. These indicators would include perceived need, happiness, life
satisfaction, and psychological well-being. It has been found that many
surveys and interview measures only represent the findings that were
identified from the point of view of the researcher.
Rather than assume an understanding of the importance of various
life domains, subjective measures can tap into the perceived importance
of the domain to the individual respondent ( Diener & Suh, 1999 ). It is
universally acknowledged that subjective QoL indicators are valid when
they measure what they were intended to measure about what people
perceive to be important to their happiness and well-being. It was also
found that there are a number of limitations to using objective and sub-
jective approaches separately. It has been generally acknowledged that the
approach to QoL that connects objective and subjective approaches is the
most meaningful.
Quality of life methods are beneficial because of the inclusion of indi-
vidual personal feelings that are not accounted for in a great deal of the lit-
erature. QoL concepts incorporate personal feelings in both individualized
and standardized measurements for the assessment of physical, mental, and
social well-being. Carr, Higginson, and Robinson (2003) reported that
there are literally hundreds of QoL measures specifically designed to
address health-related issues. It has been explained that the reason for a pre-
ponderance of specific health-related QoL measures is that they are more
likely to be valid and reliable on account of their focus on a problem or
issue. Generic measures such as the Nottingham Health Profile ( Hunt,
McEwen, & McKenna, 1985 ) are used to assess more broad and general
QoL issues across a range of different populations.
The following are some examples of specific and generic QoL stan-
dardized instruments.
￿ Generic measures:
￿ General Health Questionnaire ( Goldberg, 1972 );
￿ Goteborg Quality of Life Instrument ( Tibblin, Tibblin, Peciva,
Kullmna, & Svardsudd, 1990 );
￿ Life as a Whole Index ( Andrews & Withey, 1976 );
￿ Life Satisfaction Index ( Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin, 1961 );
￿ (Multifaceted) Life Satisfaction Scale ( Harner & Neal, 1993 );
￿ Quality of Life Inventory ( Frisch, Cornell, Villanueva, & Retzlaff,
1992 );
Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffen,
1985) .
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