Healthcare and Medicine Reference
In-Depth Information
Fleming and Manwell (1998) report that people with alcohol-related
problems often receive counseling from primary care physicians or nurs-
ing staff in five or fewer standard office visits. The counseling consists of
rational information about the negative impact of alcohol use as well as
practical advice regarding ways of reducing alcohol dependence and the
availability of community resources. Gentilello, Donovan, Dunn, and
Rivara (1995) report that 25 40% of the trauma patients seen in emer-
gency rooms may be alcohol dependent. The authors found that a single
motivational interview, at or near the time of discharge, reduced drinking
levels and readmission for trauma during 6 months of follow-up. Monti
et al. (1999) conducted a similar study with 18- to 19-year-olds admitted
to an emergency room with alcohol-related injuries. After 6 months, all
participants had decreased their alcohol consumption; however, “the
group receiving brief intervention had a significantly lower incidence of
drinking and driving, traffic violations, alcohol-related injuries, and
alcohol-related problems” ( Monti et al., 1999, p. 3 ).
Lu and McGuire (2002) studied the effectiveness of outpatient treat-
ment with substance-abusing clients and came to the following conclu-
sions. (1) The more severe the drug use problem before treatment was
initiated, the less likely clients were to discontinue drug use during treat-
ment when compared with other users. (2) Clients reporting no substance
abuse 3 months before admission were more likely to maintain abstinence
than those who reported abstinence only in the past 1 month. (3) Heroin
users were very unlikely to sustain abstinence during treatment, while
marijuana users were less likely to sustain abstinence during treatment
than were alcohol users. (4) Clients with a “psychiatric problem” were
more likely to use drugs during treatment than clients without psychiatric
problems. (5) Clients with legal problems related to their substance abuse
had reduced chances of improving during the treatment. (6) Clients who
had multiple prior treatments for substance abuse were less likely to
remain abstinent during and after treatment. (7) More-educated clients
were more likely to sustain abstinence after treatment. (8) Clients treated
in urban agencies were less likely to maintain abstinence than those trea-
ted in rural agencies.
Natural Recovery
Granfield and Cloud (1996) estimate that as many as 90% of all problem
drinkers never enter treatment and that many suspend problematic use of
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