Healthcare and Medicine Reference
Zalaquett and Stens (2006) believe we have “a great body of data sup-
porting the use of medication and/or psychosocial therapy to help the
person with depression return to a happier, more fulfilling life ... and
shorten the time to recovery” (p. 192). Pinquart and S¨ rensen (2001)
suggest that using psychosocial therapy with adults is valuable because it
decreases depression and promotes general psychological well-being.
O'Connor (2001) reports that adults usually get better after their first epi-
sode of depression, but that the relapse rate is 50%. Clients with three
episodes of depression are 90% more likely to have additional episodes.
O'Connor suggests that we need to accept depression as a chronic disease
and that therapists must be prepared to “give hope, to reduce shame, to
be mentor, coach, cheerleader, idealized object, playmate, and nurturer.
In doing so, inevitably, we must challenge many of our assumptions about
the use of the self in psychotherapy” (p. 508).
Brief and Group Therapy for Burnout
Plopper (1990) believes that brief and focused approaches to the treat-
ment of depression are preferable to intensive psychodynamic psychother-
apy. Psychodynamic treatment, which aims to provide clients with both
support and a personal understanding of their current difficulties, empha-
sizes the importance of interpreting the patient's emotional experience
through the therapeutic relationship.
Roth and Fonagy (1996) report that group therapies with adults
experiencing depression showed promise of reducing symptoms of depres-
sion. In one study, psychodynamic group therapy and cognitive behavioral
group therapy approaches were compared and found to be equally effective
in reducing levels of depression. Another study evaluated the effectiveness
of self-help books with mildly to moderately depressed adults ( Floyd,
Scogin, McKendree-Smith, Floyd, & Rokke, 2004 ). Participants were
randomly assigned to a cognitive bibliotherapy group, a behavioral biblio-
therapy group, or a delayed treatment control group. Participants in the
cognitive bibliotherapy group received a cognitive therapy self-help book,
while participants in the behavioral bibliotherapy group received a behav-
ioral therapy self-help book. Participants were told to read the books and
were contacted in 4 weeks with follow-up questions to determine the
impact of the books on depression. The results suggested “a clinically
significant change” in depression with both cognitive and behavioral ther-
apy self-help books. Gains continued at 6-month and 2-year follow-ups.
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