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concludes that the social work management literature is almost
completely devoid of best evidence. Even when best evidence is pro-
vided, it seems to have a limited impact on management. An example is
Kadushin's (1992) research that managers fail to provide sufficient feed-
back to workers, often leaving them confused and frustrated about the
adequacy of their work. Similarly, Kadushin found that, while managers
prefer to teach new workers new skills, they spend most of their time on
administrative tasks, suggesting a disconnect between what they want to
do and what they have to do, a perfect situation for burnout and job
unhappiness. The Board goes on to point out that “Despite this prefer-
ence, managers make minimal use of the large body of educational research
and theory (e.g., learning styles and theory, multiple intelligence, emo-
tional intelligence) or of the large body of research in organizational the-
ory” (American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work, 2004 , p. 19).
The Board continues by stating (p. 19) that
Even basic tenets of clinical management are untested. The supervisor
s mediat-
ing or
role (negotiator of issues between agency and supervisee),
much-described as essential in the literature, is unsubstantiated for lack of any
research. Similarly,
which posits that
practitioner-client processes are re-enacted at the supervisor-supervisee level,
has never been verified by the evidence of research.
the concept of
parallel process,
5. Cooperative Management Styles
Competency-based management exists as a cooperative venture between
managers, workers, the community, and consumers. CBM is cooperative
in its inclusion of others. This means that managers do not function from
a position of isolation. In a sense, this makes managers facilitators who
believe that cooperative relationships are not only democratic and egali-
tarian, but that they are empowering. This shift from authoritarian
approaches to cooperative ones can be difficult for managers who may
believe that what is needed to run a unit is a strong, decisive hand and
certainty in the way workers are managed. Without certainty, these man-
agers believe, chaos results, when in fact the organization may seethe
with discontent.
6. Managers Understand and Value Diversity
CBM respects and understands the need for culturally competent practice.
Cultural competency includes not only an understanding of diversity, but
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