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relationships or because managers have concern about a worker's per-
formance. This should always be done face-to-face.
Conceptual interventions are used when supervisors ask workers to
think analytically or theoretically. In this type of interaction, group
discussion, staff development, papers sent on the Internet to workers,
staff meetings, and case presentations can all have positive impact on
workers if resistance isn't great. If it is, a confrontation might be
needed to help a worker understand his or her resistance and to soften
so that new material can be integrated into the worker's
Prescriptive interventions are a way of coaching workers to perform
or eliminate certain behaviors. Loganbill et al. (1982) caution that pre-
scriptive interventions lower morale when a supervisor always negates
a worker's point of view in favor of that of the supervisor.
Catalytic interventions exist when a supervisor helps a worker under-
stand something so significant about his or her work performance that
it could lead to a substantial breakthrough in the performance of the
worker. This might include watching the worker perform a task and
giving on-the-spot feedback.
Competency-based management (CBM) is a form of evidence-based
practice that applies best evidence to management practices. CBM utilizes
information from well-done research studies, which provide logical rea-
sons to assume that the best way to practice management is to objectively
know what works and to determine when it should be used and the con-
ditions under which its use will be optimal. Competency-based manage-
(CBM) can be distinguished from more traditional
forms of
management because of the following:
1. Focus on Outcomes
Competency-based management focuses on work-related outcomes.
Gambrill (1999) believes that the use of competency-based practice can
help us “avoid fooling ourselves that we have knowledge when we do
not” (p. 342). As Gambrill further notes, competency-based practice
“requires an atmosphere in which critical appraisal of practice-related
claims flourishes, and clients [and workers] are involved as informed
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