Healthcare and Medicine Reference
In-Depth Information
middle and upper management “to foresee and effectively address internal
or exogenous adversary circumstances with the potential to inflict a mul-
tidimensional crisis, by consciously recognizing and proactively preparing
for its inevitable occurrence” (p. 599).
Haines and Donald (1998) urge managers in health care to use very
current research findings for managing organizations. The authors write,
“Research findings can influence decisions at many levels in caring for
individual patients, in developing practice guidelines, in commissioning
health care, in developing prevention and health promotion strategies, in
developing policy, in designing educational programs, and in performing
clinical audit” (p. 74). The authors argue that “Organizational change is
often also necessary to implement clinical change” (p. 74) and suggest
that much of what is hampering the development of good-quality services
and products is the inability of organizations to change when pressing
social and economic pressures demand change.
Weiss (2004) believes that a serious mistake managers make in dealing
with future demands is to rely on past ways of doing their jobs without
recognition that changing times require managers to stay current. To
guard against obsolescence, Weiss urges managers to “Continue your edu-
cation. College courses, graduate and certificate programs present the lat-
est developments and the newest technology in your field of interest”
(p. 19). Contrary to common wisdom, Russell and Petrie (1994) found
that managers do not improve in their performance over time without
significant preparation and continuing education and urge better training
before and during the actual work assignments.
In agreeing with Weiss that managers need to be prepared for new
and changing times in organizational life, Reiss and Fishel (2000) studied
the preparation of managers supervising therapists. They found that
almost none of the professionals surveyed had a formal course in manage-
ment and that most lacked any significant management training.
Pina e Cunha, da Cunha, Joao Vieira, and Kamoche (1984) argue that
one of the major mistakes management has made is to approach their
function as if they know what is going to happen in the future. This tra-
ditional approach to managing for the future requires maintenance of
external clarity and internal calm. In other words, to manage for stability
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