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them as lacking competence. Moving into a less-demanding job
would probably minimize their work addictions.
￿ Type 9: The Dictatorial Workaholic . This type of workaholic gets
sadistic pleasure out of working others to death and uses insults and
threats to get others to work more than is necessary. They use intimi-
dation and put downs to eliminate rewards and never give positive
feedback. While they thrive on the pain they inflict on others, includ-
ing family, they also benefit from the hard work and achievement of
others. Since they never give others credit for their achievement and
make it their own, they often look highly competent to outsiders.
This type of workaholic often rises to the top of organizations. It
comes as a surprise to others not familiar with how the dictatorial
workaholic functions that they create such unhappiness and often are
so disliked by others in an organization.
￿ Type 10: The Manic-Depressive Workaholic . Occasionally we
find people who achieve at a very high level because they have manic
episodes that last long enough for them to get incredible amounts of
work done. During manic highs, they may work for days without
sleep before succumbing to the inevitable low they experience as the
chemical nature of their condition shifts to depression. Some people
have manic highs all of the time. What distinguishes them from other
types of workaholics is that there is often something very troubling
about their behavior and the work they produce. They appear to be
high on drugs (and sometimes they are). We've read work written by
students and employees during manic phases
is often just
The negative impact of workaholism on families and relationships has
been written about at length. Oates (1971) observed that workaholics are
socially inadequate in their home lives and have difficulties with personal
relationships. Robinson (1989) suggested that excessive work often pre-
vents workaholics from forming and maintaining intimate relationships.
Killinger (1991) found that workaholics have limited intimacy with
spouses and use work as a substitute for all other relationships. Other
researchers have found that workaholism results in much higher levels of
spousal dissatisfaction and divorce rates
( Klaft & Kleiner, 1988 ),
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